Man Woke Up and Suddenly Forgot the Last 20 Years of His Life

Most of us have had minor lapses in our memory (usually caused by a drunken night of partying – no, I don’t remember singing karaoke…), but imagine waking up one morning and forgetting the last 20 years of your life. Well, that’s exactly what happened to one man in Granbury, Texas.

Last July, 36-year-old Daniel Porter woke up thinking that he had to get ready for school because in his mind he was still 16 years old. But when he opened his eyes, he noticed a strange woman lying next to him in bed. Surprised at seeing the strange woman, he got out of bed and walked over to the mirror only to see an “old and fat” man staring back at him.

In reality, he was 36 years old, married to his wife Ruth, and had a 10-year-old daughter named Libby – none of which he remembered. In fact, he thought he was kidnapped by a stranger but his wife and parents had to reassure him that he was safe at home with his family.

“He woke up one morning and just had no idea who I was or where he was. He was very confused. I could tell he didn’t recognize the room,” Ruth explained, “He thought he was either drunk and gone home with a woman or that he’d been kidnapped. I could see him looking for an escape route.”

When she helped him get dressed, he thought that he was putting on another man’s clothes and that Ruth’s husband was going to “come home any minute”. Daniel did remember watching a WWE episode and when Ruth researched it, she realized that it originally aired in the 1990s.

He didn’t remember meeting his wife in 2006 when they both worked at Walmart, or that they got married in 2007. He was even scared of their dogs. Furthermore, he forgot all of his training as a hearing specialist, ultimately leading to him leaving his job. Ruth added that his memory loss caused him to become different in certain ways like changes in his personality and that he now has “different tastes in food”.

Doctors diagnosed Daniel with having Transient Global Amnesia (TGA) which is normally a sudden and temporary lapse in short-term memory. It affects 3 to 10 out of every 100,000 people and those who suffer from it have become confused or disorientated about their whereabouts and the time. Their memories usually returns within 24 hours but unfortunately for Daniel, it’s been a year and a lot of his memories regarding his last 20 years are still missing.

There is no known cause for TGA, but it mostly affects people older than 50 years of age with some of them having a history of migraines. The condition could be caused by several factors such as hard physical activity, sexual intercourse, sudden exposure to very hot or very cold water, emotional stress, or mild head trauma.

Prior to his memory loss, Daniel did suffer from extreme stress in addition to stress-induced seizures. The non-epileptic seizures were so bad that he suffered a slipped disk in his back. “He walks with a walking stick and a bit like an old man. He dealt with that for around six months and all this other stuff back to back and it was like his brain just said it didn’t want to do it anymore and just swiped 20 years of memories,” Ruth said.

Let’s hope that Daniel fully recovers and regains all of his precious memories.

The post Man Woke Up and Suddenly Forgot the Last 20 Years of His Life first appeared on Mysterious Universe.

Global crypto users more than doubled in the first half of 2021 research reveals that global crypto adoption has doubled since January. 
As of June 2021, the number of global crypto users has reached 221 million. 

According to the latest research by, the market size of crypto users globally has more than doubled in the first half of this year. The report showed that there are now 221 million crypto users in the global market. While compiling the result, analyzed on-chain data with other parameters. The research utilized data garnered from the 24 largest crypto platforms in the world. 

Crypto users globally doubled between January and June 2021

Noting that the number of crypto users globally reached 221 million in June, the report stated that crypto users all over the world nearly doubled in just about four months. The market size, which was around 106 million earlier this year in February, increased to 203 million in May. 

Before then, the global crypto user base advanced from 65 million to 100 million within nine months, beginning from when started using the new research methodology in May last year. 

Notably, Bitcoin fueled the growth recorded in the first two months of the year. Additionally, there was a significant growth in the adoption of altcoins in May, which supported the total crypto market size to a new high. 

Factors behind increased crypto adoption in the last six months

The report tied the surge in crypto adoption to some notable events in the crypto space. Firstly, there is an increase in the number of institutional investors in cryptocurrencies. More specifically, Bitcoin led the global crypto adoption from January through April. During the period, institutions like PayPal, Visa, Mastercard, and MicroStrategy announced their BTC investments. These giants announced their Bitcoin acquisitions and declared their support for the top coin. Following the announcement, Bitcoin saw notable increases in its adoption. 

Likewise, the second crypto by market cap, Ethereum, also grew in May and June with a spike in institutional demand. 

The research also mentions Tesla CEO Elon Musk as one of the influencers of the increased crypto adoption globally. After Musk triggered a rise in Bitcoin earlier, the electric vehicle (EV) company CEO also caused a dip in the value of the cryptocurrency. After entering 2021 on a high note, Bitcoin continued to pull in gains and reach new record highs between January and early April. However, the coin began to drop following Musk’s criticism of Bitcoin mining. As Bitcoin started losing its value, the number of Bitcoin and Ethereum holders also began to reduce. However, other altcoins, led by SHIB and DOGE, recorded an improvement of about 50 percent in the number of holders. 

The co-founder and CEO of commented: 

Our Research and Insights team have continued to fine tune their market assessments, giving us and the broader community a clear understanding of the market, The growth we have seen in the first half of 2021 on our platform and industry-wide is very encouraging and we will continue investing heavily as we pursue our goal of putting cryptocurrency in every wallet.


Der Beitrag Global crypto users more than doubled in the first half of 2021 erschien zuerst auf Crypto News Flash.

Ethernity Chain to Drop NFT of NAS’s Performance in South Africa on the 20th Anniversary of the end of Apartheid

Johannesburg, South Africa, 29th July, 2021,

Ethernity Chain is proud to announce another unique NFT collection is coming to its ecosystem. This aNFT (Authenticated NFT) collection contains UNRELEASED and never before seen footage of Nas performing a sold-out show of Illmatic with a full orchestra in South Africa on the anniversary of the ending of Apartheid. This drop is made possible with the help of Audio Up and will occur on July 31, 2021. 

The connection between NAS and the Apartheid is intriguing. Ending Apartheid in South Africa was a major milestone that coincided with releasing Illmatic in the United States. So having NAS perform on the twentieth-anniversary date of ending Apartheid makes a lot of sense in that regard. Additionally, this cross-over anniversary highlighted a crucial reason why the Apartheid needed to be abolished.

Before abolishing the Apartheid, it would not have been possible for an African-American hip-hop artist to perform in front of a wide audience like the performance that NAS did in 2014. The fact that performance was held signals a crucial change and is part of the broader narrative of how hip hop is a defining force for African-American voices globally. Additionally, it has become the definitive global music genre that tops streaming and sales charts globally, even today.  

In 2013, Jared Gutstadt, Founder of Audio Up, had a wild idea to create orchestral tracks based on Illmatic–it would be legendary. Due to a chance meeting between Nas and Jared, they started working on bringing this vision to life. Jared composed the orchestral tracks, partnered with an orchestra, and Nas crushed it by performing his lyrics over the music to a live audience in 2014. This NFT collection is compiled from never-before-seen footage of that performance.

As serendipity would have it, the date of that performance in South Africa fell upon the anniversary of the end of Apartheid. Coincidentally, the anniversary of the Nas Illmatic album release also falls on this date. The charitable beneficiary of this collection is the We Are Family Foundation, founded by legendary musician and producer, Nile Rodgers. The foundation focuses on initiatives that unite the world. These proceeds will benefit WAFF’s Youth to the Front program. Nile has personal experiences as a creator showcasing his craft in South Africa at the end of Apartheid. His song “We Are Family” gave Nelson Mandela hope when he was still imprisoned in South Africa. Nile composed the music for the movie “Coming To America” which was the first movie premier shown to an integrated audience in South Africa. The synergy of Nas and Nile’s creative talents coupled with the power of their music to unite diverse groups of people makes this collection one of great importance for fans as well as a marker for this moment in history. It’s an ode to how far we have come and a reminder of how far we have to go.

About Ethernity Chain:

Ethernity is the groundbreaking authenticated NFT project which auctions verified artwork featuring the top artists and stars from sports, music, film, gaming, tech, history and entertainment. Each of these digital artworks is represented as a non-fungible token (NFT). The pieces feature well-known public figures, and a portion of all funds raised from the endeavor will be donated to charitable causes. Ethernity Chain combines the utility of DeFi and merges it with NFTs to create an exclusive pipeline to rare, collectible content from notable figures and well-established digital artists.

About Audio Up Media:

Audio Up Media is a podcast content production studio, housing a world of infinite, audio-based properties. Ran by Audio Up CEO and Adweek’s 2020 Podcast Innovator of the Year and Podcast Producer of the Year recipient, Jared Gutstadt (formerly of the Jingle Punks), Audio Up is building an ecosystem of premium entertainment content within the music and audio space. From fictional scripted podcasts, which include a Marvel-like universe of musicals, where the records themselves become the story foundation, to one-on-one interview formats, Audio Up’s goal is to create a new and innovative form of IP. They are bringing audio blockbusters to life and taking this media from black and white, into technicolor. Current properties include the riveting top 20 crime podcast Where The Bodies Are Buried, Michael Cohen’s new chart-topping podcast Mea Culpa, and Tom Green’s The Tom Green Interview. Their recent projects include Make It Up As We Go with Scarlett Burke, Miranda Lambert, Lindsay Ell and other huge country entertainment names; and four-part scripted Halloween podcast Halloween in Hell with Machine Gun Kelly, 24kGoldn and iann dior. Up next, Audio Up will debut Sonic Leap featuring Hero The Band, and Uncle Drank: The Totally Hammered Podcast starring Gary Busy and Dennis Quaid. 


Steve D’Agostino

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The Erratic Enigma: A Few of These Ancient Geological “Orphans” Remain Mysterious

During the nineteenth century, many a traveler throughout America’s heartland found themselves transfixed by their observations of large, errant boulders which occasionally sprang from the landscape in the middle of large stretches of forest or fields. These mysterious stony outcrops appeared to defy the expectations of geologists, since they were not associated with any native veins of similar stone. The question at the time had been, if not of natural geologic origin, what was the origin of these massive stones?

Known today as erratics, a word derived from the Latin word meaning “to wander,” these massive stones are believed to have been transported by the movement of glacial ice during the Pleistocene. However, to nineteenth-century travelers, the mysterious misplacement of these massive stones had presented serious problems and aroused a number of creative theories about their origins.

Example of an erratic known as “Tripod Rock,” resting atop three smaller boulders as it has remained for thousands of years at Pyramid Mountain, New Jersey (Credit: Wally Gobetz/Flickr).

One leading theory among investigators at the time had been the notion that erratics represented evidence of the great flood described in the Christian bible, or at very least, some similar flooding event that occurred sometime after Earth emerged from the most recent ice age. According to this view, the colossal energy of floodwaters would have provided the necessary force to have moved the stones. However, by the middle of the nineteenth-century research by those like Swiss naturalist Ignaz Venetz began to focus on how glaciers offered a better explanatory mechanism for the mysterious erratics.

Following Venetz, the publication of Charles Lyell’s Principles of Geology also offered an explanation for the curious movement of erratics with the aid of glaciers. Similar observations had been made by the German polymath Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and several colleagues that stones found along the slopes of the Jura Mountains had likely been deposited after the movement of glaciers during the last ice age. Even naturalist Charles Darwin, best known for his contributions to the theory of evolution, had taken interest in these geological wonders of the ancient world and wrote of his observations of erratics from aboard the HMS Beagle while sailing south of the Strait of Magellan.

Charles Darwin

Of course, while glacial movement appeared to be a reliable mechanism for the movement of such massive stones, the question remained as to what might have placed them on top of glaciers to begin with. The leading theory about this among nineteenth-century scholars had been that landslides and rockfalls, occasionally helped along by the movement of the encroaching ice itself, had likely resulted in stones coming to rest upon the ice sheets, which were thereafter carried along as the glaciers moved. Once the ice sheets began to melt and the glaciers receded again, these stones—some of them carried along for great distances—would have found their way to their present positions on the ground far from where they originated.

While such geological mechanisms are well understood today, there are still some erratics that maintain a few unusual aspects. Along the coasts of Washington and Oregon today, several erratics can be found which appear to have spent a significant amount of time below ground. Mostly of basaltic origin, these peculiar stones are otherwise similar to other known glacial erratics, although the evidence suggesting that they have spent significant amounts of time as much as 40 kilometers below Earth’s surface seems to preclude their movement above Pleistocene glaciers. So where did they come from, and how were they moved to their current positions?

Geologists have noted that these unusual erratics are in an area where few fossil discoveries have turned up. Some have gone so far as to suggest that there is evidence of some kind of disruption or another mechanism that causes this part of the northwestern coast to appear “upside down,” at least geologically speaking.

Yeager Rock, another obvious erratic visible on the Waterville Plateau, Washington (Public Domain).

In 1980, researcher Robert Muir Wood offered a theory about the origins of these curiosities in his New Scientist article “Orphans of the Wild West.” The theory proposed for the region’s odd appearance and its potentially non-glacial erratics suggests that these stones were forced down to great depths in the ancient past, and later carried back to the surface by geological pressure that squeezed the surrounding soil, causing them to rise again to their present aboveground positions.

While the theory appears to make sense, not everyone saw it as the most viable explanation for the curious non-glacial erratics that appear to have been left “orphaned” along the coasts of certain western states. While the debate over their origins remains, the question over what mechanism might have actually led to these seemingly “non-glacial” erratics is, of course, a fascinating one.

Hence, perhaps at least a few of these mysteries of the geological past remain unexplained today, and no less perplexing to the modern scientists who continue to marvel over them.

The post The Erratic Enigma: A Few of These Ancient Geological “Orphans” Remain Mysterious first appeared on Mysterious Universe.

Strange and Sinister Characters Who Popped up in History

The theme of today’s article is a very strange one: odd and creepy characters who surface at crucial times in history. Who are they? I’ll say right away that I have no idea. But, they’re out there, for sure. We’ll begin with the world’s most famous UFO case: the Roswell affair of July 1947. The late Frank Joyce was a key figure in the story of Roswell. When the “whatever-it-was” crashed to the ground on the Foster Ranch, Lincoln County, New Mexico, Joyce was a radio announcer with the KGFL station. Not only that, Joyce was the first to speak with rancher William Ware “Mac” Brazel, the man who stumbled on the huge field of strange debris. And, some have suggested, Brazel may have even seen a damaged body or two on the ranch. Joyce, Jud Roberts and Walt Whitmore, Sr. were all part of KGFL. And they were all threatened not to talk about the incident. It wasn’t long at all – around forty-eight hours – before Whitmore, Sr. asked Joyce to go with him to the ranch. Now, we come to our first creepy, weird character. When Joyce got in the car, he couldn’t fail to see there was someone else in the car – on the back-seats. It was a man who came to be known as “The Traveler.” Here’s where it gets really weird. The man in the back was wearing a bright gold outfit. It was somewhat akin to an outfit that a military pilot would wear. The strangeness progressed: on the drive, Joyce popped a soda. There was, however, something strange about that soda. Very strange.

It became clear to Joyce, and quickly, that he had been dosed with, well, with something. The story gets even more bizarre: Joyce was sure he and the Traveler were communicating via something akin to psychic phenomena. Of course, Joyce – high on that mind-manipulating drink – was toasted to the gills at the time. So, it’s hard to know how much of that part of the story was real or not. On finally getting to the ranch, Whitmore and Roberts went inside the home. Joyce, though, was told to wait in a nearby shack on the property. Suddenly, a very worried Brazel entered the shack, warning Joyce to stay silent about the now-famous incident. Joyce, although still not in his right mind, agreed to say nothing. When Joyce got back to the vehicle, The Traveler in gold was nowhere in sight. In their 2016 book, The Children of Roswell, Tom Carey and Don Schmitt reveal something incredible: that the military was “…still not sufficiently convinced by Joyce’s pledge not to say anything, as he was shortly thereafter gathered up and physically removed to a military hospital in Texas for the next year.” The whole thing occurred under very strange circumstances and never really resolved. Moving on, let’s take a look at Umbrella Man.

The location of the “Roswell crash” (Nick Redfern)

“As Kennedy’s presidential limousine passed by, carrying driver Agent Bill Greer, Agent Roy Kellerman, Governor John Connally, Nellie Connally, President Kennedy and Jackie Kennedy, onlookers waved and attempted to get the president’s attention. Some had small flags, some had handkerchiefs, but most waved their own hands or hats. One onlooker, however, had something far more interesting. As Kennedy’s limo rolled past, the onlooker opened a black umbrella and lifted it into the air. As the limo continued on, he seemed to wave the umbrella in a clockwise motion, as if signaling something. Coincidentally (or perhaps not at all) the opening and waving of the umbrella seemed to coordinate perfectly with the shots fired at the president.” Those are the words of Katie Serena in an article on Umbrella Man. Now, it’s time for another strange saga.

Within the field of Ufology there are longstanding rumors that the May 22, 1949 death of James Forrestal – the first U.S. Secretary of Defense – was linked to the UFO phenomenon. So the story goes, while suffering from severe depression and anxiety, and ultimately spiraling into a complete nervous breakdown (as a result of his exposure to what the U.S. Government knew about UFOs), Forrestal was on the verge of revealing his knowledge of an alien presence on Earth. The theory continues that powerful figures decided such a thing simply could not be allowed to occur. The result was that Forrestal had to go. And “go,” he certainly did: out of a window. In the early hours of May 22, Forrestal plunged to his death from the 16th floor of the Bethesda Naval Hospital. The big question is: was he pushed or did he jump? That’s a question for another day. However, we are not short in strange characters in the saga of James Forrestal.

Just a few days before he ended up in the hospital, Forrestal had a curious experience which had distinct Men in Black overtones attached to it. On the day in question, Forrestal received a visit from one of his friends, a man named Ferdinand Eberstadt, someone who was deeply concerned about Forrestal’s fragile and paranoid state of mind. Eberstadt (a lawyer, a banker, and the author of a historic 1945 document, “Task Force Report on National Security Organization”) was floored by what he saw when he arrived at Forrestal’s home. All of the curtains were closed. Forrestal told his friend – in hushed tones – that listening-devices were all over the house. Sinister characters were watching his every move. His life was in danger. To demonstrate this to Eberstadt, Forrestal carefully opened one of the blinds and pointed, knowingly, in the direction of a pair of shabbily-dressed men on the street-corner.

James V. Forrestal

“They” were a part of a deadly plot, Forrestal assured Eberstadt. In no time at all, the doorbell to Forrestal’s home was heard ringing. The last thing Forrestal wanted to do was answer the door. Fortunately, one of his staff was on hand to do exactly that. A brief conversation took place, but which neither Forrestal nor Eberstadt were able to hear. The facts, however, quickly came to Forrestal from his houseboy. According to what the two men were told, the visitor at the door was trying to generate support that would hopefully allow him to become postmaster in his hometown. Could he come in and speak with Forrestal and have him offer some help and advice? Due to Forrestal’s fraught state of mind, the man was sent packing. Eberstadt and Forrestal watched carefully as the man walked directly towards the two badly-dressed men that already had Forrestal in a state of turmoil. It was even more evidence of a conspiracy against him, Forrestal grimly concluded, when he saw the three clearly engaging in conversation. The strange trio was quickly gone. And, in a very different way, Forrestal himself would be gone very soon.

Finally, there are the mysterious Men in Black who descended upon Point Pleasant, West Virginia in the 1960s. Mothman appeared, too, of course. A woman named Mary Hyre played an integral role in the series of 1960s-era events that led John Keel to write The Mothman Prophecies. As an example of many, in January 1967, Mary was visited by a creepy, bowl-haired MIB of around 5-feet in height and who had oddly hypnotic eyes. Throughout the encounter, the black-clad “man” kept staring at Hyre’s ballpoint pen. To the point where Hyre told him he could keep it. He took it, laughed loud in a strange fashion, and vanished as mysteriously as he first arrived. As The Demoniacal notes: “Mary Hyre was the Point Pleasant, WV, correspondent for the Athens, OH, newspaper titled, The Messenger. Hyre documented strange occurrences happening in Point Pleasant in 1966-1967 and was well loved by locals due to her professional and open-minded take on the subjects. In one weekend alone, Hyre received 500 reports of UFO sightings from locals. Hyre’s fascination with flying saucers stemmed from her own sighting of a UFO which she claimed flew over her backyard.”

Connected characters? Creepy figures with their own, separate agendas? And why did all of these strange people arrive at specific, notable times in history? The questions could go on and on. The answers, unfortunately, are few.

The post Strange and Sinister Characters Who Popped up in History first appeared on Mysterious Universe.

Strange Historical Technology Hoaxes That Fooled Everyone

Since the dawn of time human beings have moved forward through resourcefulness, invention and technology. It is what brought us up from mere apes cowering in the dark, to the advance being we are today, travelling to the stars and unravelling the secrets of the universe. Discovery and innovation have driven us to be the most advanced species the world has ever known, and all of this comes from the discoveries and inventions of those who have managed to unfurl the layers from what we do not understand. But discovery and invention are hard. It takes a lot of work and trial and error, and so for as long as amazing discoveries have been around there have been those who have just tried to fake it. Here are some of the boldest, cunning, and most baffling technological hoaxes from the annals of history.

A very early hoax involved a type of robot before robots were ever even really a thing. In 1769, a Hungarian nobleman by the name of Baron Wolfgang von Kempelen built what he claimed to be a fully-functioning, chess playing robot, which at the time were typically referred to as “automatons.” It appeared as a large wooden box filled with gears, cogs, wires, and other fancy looking technological stuff, and atop this box sat a wooden mannequin dressed in Turkish clothes for some reason, and with maneuverable arms and hands. There was a large handle on the side, which Kempelen would wind up to activate the automaton, after which it would creepily spring to life to play chess. It had dexterous hands, could pick up and move chess pieces on its own, and not only that, it was touted as having the ability to “think,” planning strategies and studying and reacting to its opponent’s moves.

When Kempelen first unveiled his creation it caused a major stir, as no one had ever seen any automaton that could do anything other than merely mimic humans and animals at the most rudimentary level. By all appearances, this was an actual thinking robot able to interact with an opponent, which was mind-blowing at the time. Kempelen then toured all over the place giving demonstrations of his wondrous machine. A typical show would be for him to crank up the robot, which was affectionately nicknamed “The Turk,” and then invite someone from the audience to come up and try to play chess with it, and they almost always lost to it. He was always very willing to show that it was not an illusion, opening the side of the machine to allow spectators to see that there was not a man hidden inside, and no one could quite figure out how it all worked. Before long, these demonstrations were immensely popular, bringing in nobles, aristocrats, and even Benjamin Franklin, who lost a chess match to it. Everyone was held in awe.

Kempelen’s chess-playing robot

These demonstrations would go on until 1790, when Kempelen would have his creation taken apart and put into storage. Upon his death in 1805, it was sold by his family to a German by the name of Johann Nepomuk Maelzel, who put it back together and began touring it around America. As it began to gain more fame, speculation on how it worked began doing the rounds again, with many skeptics surmising that there had to somehow be a person, maybe even a dwarf, hidden within the box or even the wooden Turk itself. It would not be until 1837 that the secret would finally come out, when those involved with the scam came forward to tell how it was done. It would turn out that various chess masters had been hidden inside the box as many had expected, and that a series of sliding panels, mirrors, and a rolling chair had been used to conceal them while audience members inspected the inside of the box.  It was then just a matter of using magnetic pieces over the hidden player’s head to gage where the opponent had moved, and then use a system of levers to move his own pieces. In the end, it was quite a simple explanation for a device that had baffled and delighted audiences for the better part of a century, and it caused great disappointment. The Turk itself would be put back into storage, and its days were finally put to an end by a warehouse fire in 1854.

At the same time that Maelzel was touring the chess-playing robot, another inventor was widely promoting what he claimed to be an actual, fully functioning perpetual mothing machine. The concept of what has become known as “perpetual motion” is simple at its core. It basically describes an object or body that remains in continuous motion forever without any external energy source. If a machine were to be built using some sort of perpetual motion technology, it would theoretically run forever without any needs of fuel, batteries, or power of any kind. This means basically unlimited energy, freeing us from the tethers of finite sources of fuel and giving us devices that will never wind down or die out. It has become a sort of holy grail for certain individuals, who continue to plug away at this seemingly unobtainable dream, and it is just how amazing how much the idea of perpetual motion has enthralled people over a large portion of history. One of these was first unveiled in 1812 by an until then rather unknown man named Charles Redheffer, who began exhibiting his invention in his home in Philadelphia, in the United States.

His fantastical machine featured a gravity-driven pendulum with a large horizontal gear on the bottom, and a smaller gear that interlocked with the larger one, with the large gear and the shaft able to rotate independently. On the gear were two ramps that held weights, and it all supposedly worked by these weights pushing the large gear away from the shaft, which would create friction that would cause the shaft and gear to spin. This spinning gear would then power the interlocked smaller gear, and on and on it would go, supposedly forever unless the weights were removed. The machine was put on display and immediately became a smash sensation, drawing in droves of amazed spectators and scientists alike, all of whom were charged a hefty admission fee by Redheffer and none of who could figure out how it all worked. It was largely whispered that he had finally cracked perpetual motion, that he had achieved the seemingly impossible dream. Before long Redhefer was getting quite rich off of his oddball machine, and there was much excited speculation that he had actually done it and achieved true perpetual motion, despite raised eyebrows from the scientific community.

Diagram of Redheffer’s machine

Redheffer, emboldened by the response to his device, actually requested funding from the state of Pennsylvania to build a much larger version, and on January 21, 1813, state inspectors were sent to take a look at the machine before any money would be paid. Unfortunately for Redheffer, he had never let anyone ever take a good, close at his device, and it would soon become apparent why. The inspectors arrived and were immediately suspicious when it turned out they could only view it through a window into a locked room. Even so, there were cracks appearing in Redheffer’s claims when it was noticed that the gear cogs were worn down in such a way as to suggest that the weights, shaft, and large gear were not powering the smaller gear, as Redheffer claimed, but rather the other way around. To them this was an obvious hoax, but the way they dealt with it is rather amusing. Rather than call out Redheffer on his scam, inspector Nathan Sellers hired a local engineer by the name of Isaiah Lukens to build a replica that was more compact and set within a solid baseboard with a square piece of glass at the top. There was no discernible way as to why it could work, yet concealed within the machine was a wind able motor that was wound through the covert use of a wooden decorative finial. With a little sleight of hand, the illusion was nearly perfect, and when he saw it Redheffer himself was so incredibly surprised to see what he took to be a real perpetual motion machine that he allegedly secretly offered Lukens a large amount of money to know the secret. After this, the news did the rest of the work and Redheffer was undone and exposed through a taste of his own medicine.

Amazingly, this did not put a stop to Redheffer. Undeterred, he simply moved to New York to set up shop there where his reputation hadn’t been as tarnished, once again enjoying some amount a fame and drawing in droves of curiosity seekers. One of these was an engineer by the name of Robert Fulton, who noticed something fishy as he observed the mysterious device in action. He could see a slight wobble to it, and also noticed a very slight unevenness to its speed and the sounds it made, both things that should not be present in a real perpetual motion device. A real device of this type would need to be frictionless and perfectly silent because friction and sound would be a loss of energy, so these were glaring clues that something was off, especially to his trained eye. Realizing that it was obviously being somehow powered by crank motion, Fulton confronted Redheffer on the spot, but the inventor amazingly held his ground, insisting that the machine was real.

Fulton then challenged Redheffer to allow him to search for any possible source of outside power, to which Redheffer foolishly agreed. After this, Fulton simply tore out a section of wall in full view of a gathered audience to find a concealed cable that led to an upstairs room, where an old man was found operating a crank. The spectators, who had all paid good money to see the amazing “perpetual motion machine,” were less than thrilled. They reportedly immediately took out their frustrations on the machine itself, smashing it to pieces, and might have done the same to Redheffer if he hadn’t already hi-tailed it out of there to later skip town. Unbelievably, Redheffer would claim several years later that he had created another machine, and that it was totally, for sure real this time, and he even got a patent for it in 1920, but since it was never put on display or examined and the patent was lost in a fire who knows if there was any truth to it.

Such an invention would be groundbreaking, completely changing our world, and it is a fascinating thing to think about it, yet according to our current knowledge of physics it simply just isn’t possible, as such a machine would violate one or more of the laws of thermodynamics. To put it in simple terms, the First Law of Thermodynamics basically is about the conservation of energy, and says that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed from one form to another, making the idea of a machine constantly creating its own energy without any outside influence impossible. There is also the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which in simple terms more or less says that an isolated system will always move toward a state of disorder, for instance heat will always dissipate and energy will be lost on any number of variables, including moving parts, friction, even sound, with the more energy formed meaning the more energy wasted. It is all much more complicated than this very basic explanation, but the gist is, a perpetual motion machine is impossible according to our current understanding of the universe and the laws of the conversation of energy. Alas, all of the many supposed perpetual motion machines have proven to be hoaxes.

In 1875 we have the strange story of John Worrell Keely, who founded the Keely Motor Company. Keely made the rather bold claim that he had invented what he called a “vibratory generator” that could purportedly wrest enough power out of a quart of water to pull a fully loaded train. He would give some seemingly successful demonstrations of this amazing device, and soon had investors throwing money at him to develop it. He would keep taking their money and stalling as he fine tuned his device, but after more than a decade of this suspicions began to arise. Nevertheless, it was such a potentially ground breaking marvel that there was still hope it might all be real. Sadly, when Keeley died in 1898 it was discovered that he had been pulling the wool over everyone’s eyes, with him having merely used a clever ruse of having a compressed air machine hidden away that would provide power to the engine. This would not be the last time someone would try to fool everyone into thinking they could turn power into fuel, and we will get to another case later.

John Worrell Keely

Not all bogus inventions were for benevolent purposes. In 1876 a self-proclaimed “Professor” by the name of James C. Wingard, of New Orleans, came forth with what he claimed to be a weapon that he had designed that could utterly destroy Naval vessels. It was supposedly essentially a death ray that he said projected a “nameless force,” and which could devastate any vessel “so as to leave no trace of them in their former shape” from a range of up to 5 miles. Wingard heavily promoted his device as the future of warfare, and promised that any one who had possession of it would rule the seas and be unstoppable, able to annihilate any enemy. This obviously had the attention of the military, and he went about arranging a demonstration on June 8, 1876 at Lake Pontchartrain. As a large crowd looked on, Wingard engaged his device, aiming it at a large wooden schooner. There was apparently a lag of around a minute before the schooner exploded into a rain of fire and smoke, after which the vessel rapidly sank.

It would soon be found that the schooner had been completely obliterated, with one statement saying “even the small timbers aft of the mainmast were broken all to pieces,” and the test seemed to have been a resounding success. Wingard then formed a stock company in Boston and continued his work on refining his groundbreaking weapon, attracting many investors. As with Keeley, they were soon demanding results, so he set up another demonstration in Boston Harbor. However, when he activated the device, there was an explosion far from the target vessel, and an investigation would find a disintegrated rowboat and two bodies in the water. Wingard cancelled the demonstration and that was all highly suspicious, with skeptics now suggesting that he was merely sending a crew out on a rowboat to secretly plant explosives on the target vessel and then using a triggering mechanism to ignite it. Wracked with guilt, Wingard would come clean and admit that this was the case, and that his team had died when the explosives had accidentally gone off. The death ray had been a sham all along.

Moving onto 1896 we have the bizarre story of Rev. Prescott Ford Jernegan, of Middletown, Connecticut, who claimed to have developed a way to extract gold from sea water with a device he called the “Gold Accumulator.” It was not a new idea at the time, but no one had ever even come close to accomplishing it. He first came to a jeweler named Arthur Ryan with this amazing invention, and offered to perform a demonstration. The machine itself looked like a simple wooden box with holes that water could pass through, with the inside containing mercury that would be electrically charged to activate a “secret ingredient.” The box was to be lowered into sea water, left overnight, and when it was pulled up the next day it would be filled with gold due to some mysterious chemical process. When Ryan agreed to see a demonstration, Jernegan simply gave him the box and told him he could do it on his own.

In February of 1897 Ryan went about testing the device on a wharf outside of Providence, Rhode Island, along with several colleagues. They used it as its inventor had instructed them to, lowered it into the water, and the next morning sure enough there were flecks of gold within it. It wasn’t as much as they had been expecting, but it was still over $100 dollars of gold in today’s money so it was seen as promising. If a collection of such machines could be set up running day and night, it could prove to be quite lucrative indeed. Jernagan said he could churn out a further 1,000 devices within the year, and there were dollar signs dancing through Ryan’s eyes. Jernegan, Ryan, and a team of investors founded the Electrolytic Marine Salts Company, and got to work on getting stinky filthy rich.

They set up an array of accumulators in Maine and Boston, and began pulling in more gold from them, “proving” it worked and attracting people wanting to buy stock in the company. Investors were pouring in money, interest was high, and it seemed to be too good to be true, and sadly, it was. In July of 1898, Jernegan suddenly vanished without a trace, later found to have hi-tailed it to Europe under a fake name. Not long after they were gone, the accumulators stopped producing gold, and it didn’t take a genius to figure out that they had all been scammed. It would turn out that Jernegan had an assistant named Charles Fisher, who also happened to have been a trained diver. It turned out that he had been secretly diving into the sea to load the accumulators with gold, a small price to pay considering how much they were pulling in from investors. As soon as the orders for their machines had gone up, they had taken all of the invested money and made a run for it, making a cool $200,000 each, about a bajillion dollars in today’s money. The two scam artists were never caught, but the idea of extracting gold from sea water remained for quite some time.

In 1909, we have the clever hoax of an inventor named Wallace Tillinghast, from Worcester, Massachusetts, who claimed that he had built an amazing new type of airplane. This was only a few years after the Wright Brothers had made their first flight, and aircraft were still in their infancy, slow and only capable of short stints with little extra weight. Indeed, the longest flight up to then was Louis Blériot’s solo flight across the English Channel, which had gone only 22 miles. In comparison, Tillinghast claimed that his own design could hold three passengers and fly over 300 miles at an average speed of 120 miles an hour, which might as well have been magic at the time. He further claimed that he had performed several test flights of his aircraft that confirmed these numbers, and excitement was high.

Through all of this, Tillinghast was very secretive as to how his airplane worked, claiming that he did not want the plans to get into the wring hands, but he assured the public that he would come forward with his amazing invention. In the meantime, there were alleged sightings of the new airplane all over New England, with thousands of witnesses and many claiming that it often shot a searchlight below it. However, there were many skeptics. Wilbur Wright himself dismissed Tillinghast’s claims as “too palpably absurd from the first to take seriously,” and reporters who had been following him and even staking out his home could find no evidence that he had any such plane or workshop where he claimed to be working on it.

As this was going on there were still numerous sightings of a mysterious airship the like of which no one had ever seen, and Tillinghast insisted that he was telling the truth. Eventually, a local man named C.D. Rawson admitted to causing the sightings with lights and reflectors attached to owls as a hoax, but Tillinghast did not budge from his adamant position that his invention was real. 1910 came and went with no further word on the amazing new airplane, and the public ended up merely shrugging their shoulders and moving on. It would largely be looked at as a huge hoax, with no evidence that Tillinghast had any such aircraft or had ever made a flight at all, and he would just sort of fade away into the background.

Moving on into more modern times, we have still more mysterious supposed inventions that could have had world changing implications. In the 1970s, a man named Thomas Ogle claimed to have developed a new type of car carburetor that supposedly could make gasoline into a pressurized vapor and utilize it on the engine’s firing chambers in an incredibly super efficient manner, allowing vehicles to allegedly run over 100 miles to the gallon. In addition, Ogle claimed that any car could be modified to use the new system easily and for not much additional cost, making the whole thing seem almost too good to be true. Ogle himself showed off a Ford Galaxie that had supposedly been fitted with the new miracle carburetor and was clocked at around 113 miles to the gallon.

Unfortunately we will never know. Ogle died in 1981 without ever having divulged just how the vapor carburetor worked, and even his death has sparked controversy, with some saying he was intentionally poisoned by someone within the big gasoline companies who stood to lose the most from such an innovative product. Considering that no one has ever been able to replicate the process, it has been speculated that the whole thing could have been a hoax, with Ogle simply showing an illusion utilizing hidden fuel tanks, but other have defended his invention as having been real, and in the end the fact is we simply don’t know. All we know is that it would have been a revolutionary development way ahead of its time.

Thomas Ogle

Getting back to perpetual motion machines, one was unveiled in 1979 by American inventor Joseph Newman. The machine was called the DC motor, and according to him worked by using “energy in a magnetic field consisting of matter in motion,” and which he claimed could produce more energy than was put into it. He even went about seeking a patent for his invention, but it was denied as the Patent Office could not see how it could feasibly work. When Newman appealed this decision, it was found in an investigation by the National Bureau of Standards that the device’s power output was never above 100% of the power supplied to it, which was not promising. Newman would continue to adamantly insist that his machine really worked, but he sort of fell into obscurity after making all manner of other crackpot claims over the years. Whether his supposed perpetual motion machine ever really worked or not remains unknown, but everything we know about science says probably not. For now, the notion of a real working perpetual motion machine really does sit in the realm of science fiction, and it has mostly been a pursuit abandoned by most real scientists. It has come to be relegated to mad inventors working in their garages against all odds to try and make the impossible possible.

Our species is always going to reach towards the horizon and penetrate into the mysteries that we don’t understand, further opening up new discoveries and propelling our progress. This is an innate feature of our kind, and to be sure there will be leaps and bounds made over the coming decades that will bring true progress. Yet looking back at cases such as these it seems that for as much progress as we make, there will always be those willing to fake it for fame or money.

The post Strange Historical Technology Hoaxes That Fooled Everyone first appeared on Mysterious Universe.

Warning to Aliens — Get Ready for the Space Marines

Aliens thinking about invading Earth need to be ready to start hearing cries of “Semper Fi!” now that a select group of “space Marines” have commenced training at the Army’s Space and Missile Defense School in Colorado Springs, Colorado, where they will prepare to fight our country’s battles from the halls of Montezuma to the shores of Tranquility … on the Moon and beyond. Someday soon, if extraterrestrials ever look on heaven’s scenes, they will find our skies are guarded by United States Marines.

“We are in our initial building stage of SOPs (standard operating procedures) and TTPs (tactics, techniques, and procedures) and force structure. Right now this is a capability that doesn’t exist in the Marine Corps. It’s always us reaching out to the joint force to provide it.”

It wouldn’t be a military announcement without acronyms, so the press release quotes Marine Capt. Jacob Loya, a communications officer with a background in satellite communications working with 1st Space Brigade to train the Marines, had a few to say. The Marines are part of the newly activated Marine Corps Forces Space Command at Offutt Air Force Base in Omaha, Nebraska, and after training will embed with Army Space Support Teams. The training will include, situational awareness of space capabilities, space assets, space products, and the impact of space on operations. According to the press release, the goal is from the Marines to eventually establish their own autonomous Marine Space Support Teams.

What about the Space Force?

“With the renewed emphasis on space and the standing up of the Space Force and Space Command, the Marine Corps needs to have skin in the game. We want to be able to operate independently and that starts by learning all the TTPs built out by 1st Space Brigade. It’s a knowledge base we just don’t have.”

The Space Force is a separate branch of U.S. uniformed services, although it’s considered to be a sister-branch of the U.S. Air Force. It’s responsible for organizing, training, and equipping space forces, which are then deployed by the United States Space Command. So, according to the chain of command and distribution of responsibilities, it appears the Space Force trained the Army’s Space and Missile Defense School personnel which then trains its own Army and Marine space support teams, which in this case are the Space Marines – although that’s not their official designation.

According to Task and Purpose, the space Marines will be a part of the Army Space Support Team (ARSST) providing enhanced “intelligence and operation planning capabilities” for units in the field, especially in the area of space-based military capabilities like satellite intelligence and communications. They will also be able to jam enemy communications and take part in “navigation warfare.”

John Glenn

It’s the 100th anniversary of his birth, so we’ll salute the most famous space Marine – John Glenn. Glenn trained as a Navy pilot, but accepted a transfer to the Marines and flew missions in World War II and the Korean War before becoming a test pilot and eventually one of the first U.S. astronauts – the first American to orbit the Earth. (That’s real space travel, Bezos and Branson.)

Would John Glenn be interested in becoming an official Space Marine and fight alien invasions? He never hesitated to serve when his country called, so it’s easy to answer that question.

“From dawn to setting sun; We have fought in every clime and place
Where we could take a gun.”

The post Warning to Aliens — Get Ready for the Space Marines first appeared on Mysterious Universe.

The continued mystery of QuadrigaCX’s Gerald Cotten’s death and loss of millions in crypto

More than $145 million worth of crypto is locked in cold storage with owners unable to access the assets.
There has been widespread speculation that Cotten faked his death to make away with clients’ investments.

The recent disappearance of South African brothers Ameer and Raees Cajee of Africrypt exchange with 69,000 BTC is just one of many crypto “exit scams”. As can be expected, the increase in mainstream interest in digital assets has brought with it scammers hoping to profit off the naive and in some cases, the not-so-naive.

One of the best-known ‘alleged’ exit scams was the sudden death of Gerald Cotten, founder of the Canadian crypto exchange QuadrigaCX. Cotten’s death, according to official records was on December 9, 2018. The cause of death was revealed to be complications arising from his years-long struggle with Crohn’s disease. The CEO died while on his honeymoon in India.

The company did not announce this to the public until about a month later. It was revealed that with his death, access to the company’s cold storage wallets and conversely $145 million in investor crypto was lost. The firm then froze withdrawals and went on to enter bankruptcy proceedings in April of 2019. It owed around 76,000 investors.

Naturally, this news did not sit well with clients and the media. Further investigation into Gerald Cotten revealed a shady past that sparked widespread speculation that the CEO had faked his death and made away with investors’ money.

Gerald Cotten’s death: an exit scam?

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) opened an investigation into the matter. One online publication dubbed his death “crypto’s biggest mystery”. Some speculated Cotten had faked his death in order to rob his clients of their investments. Some investors have gone as far as asking that his body be exhumed to prove his death.

They point to various signs like the fact that his will was signed just two weeks before the couple left for their honeymoon. Cotten, who it was revealed had been using the money clients entrusted onto his company to invest on luxuries such as flying on private jets and yachts, had left his two dogs $100,000 each as an inheritance. His wife, Jennifer Robertson, was named as the executor of his $9 million estate. She has however denied knowing anything about Cotten’s business dealings and returned the $9 million to the company to help refund clients.

Another irregularity was the fact that only he had complete access to the company’s funds. It has since been revealed that Cotten would use fake accounts under the alias “Chris Markay” to make fake Bitcoin purchases for his clients. Accounting firm Ernst and Young says he would then use this crypto to make investments elsewhere for himself.

Police have come to the conclusion that QuadrigoCX was simply a large Ponzi scheme. Investigator Amy Castor revealed that Cotten had been carrying out such schemes since he was a teenager. It is believed that he had been involved in the pre-crypto virtual token eGold. It does not help his case that QuadrigoCX’s co-founder Michael Patryn was in fact, an individual whose real name was Omar Dhanani and had been convicted of identity fraud in the United States.

Investigations are still ongoing, with calls to exhume his body still yet to clear the legal process. A total of $46 million has been recovered – $34 million from the company and $12 million from his assets. The rest remains inaccessible.

Der Beitrag The continued mystery of QuadrigaCX’s Gerald Cotten’s death and loss of millions in crypto erschien zuerst auf Crypto News Flash.

Hubble Confirms Water Vapor on Jupiter’s Moon Ganymede

Thanks to data collected by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers were able to find the first ever evidence of water vapor in the atmosphere of Ganymede. The water vapor found on Jupiter’s moon was a result of sublimating ice on the surface (this is when it turns from solid to gas).

Past research has claimed that Ganymede – the largest moon in our Solar System – has more water than all of our planet’s oceans combined, but since the temperatures on the moon are so cold, the water is completely frozen on the surface and its ocean would have to be located approximately 100 miles underneath the crust. The daytime temperature on Ganymede is between -297 and -171 degrees Fahrenheit (-183 to -113 degrees Celsius). With that being said, the water vapor observed by Hubble over the past two decades could not have been part of the underground ocean.


To understand this better, we have to look back at the initial observations of Ganymede. Back in 1998, the first ever ultraviolet photos of the moon were taken by Hubble’s Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. They showed colorful auroral bands that experts believed were caused by molecular oxygen (O2); however, further analysis indicated that the moon did not have pure molecular oxygen in its atmosphere and suggested that there might have been a higher amount of atomic oxygen.

Now skipping forward, a team that was led by Lorenz Roth from the KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden, decided to measure how much atomic oxygen was in Ganymede’s atmosphere by using data collected by Hubble’s Cosmic Origins Spectrograph in 2018, as well as old photos from 1998 to 2010 that were taken by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS).

Incredibly, they found that there wasn’t very much atomic oxygen in the atmosphere and that there had to be another explanation for the differences noticed in the ultraviolet aurora images. The moon’s surface close to the equator could possibly warm up enough that ice vapor is released as Roth explained, “So far only the molecular oxygen had been observed,” adding, “This is produced when charged particles erode the ice surface. The water vapor that we measured now originates from ice sublimation caused by the thermal escape of water vapor from warm icy regions.” (The ultraviolet images can be seen here.)


This is an exciting new discovery and we will hopefully learn more when the European Space Agency launches its JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) mission in 2022. It will arrive at the Gas Giant in 2029 and will study Jupiter in addition to its three largest moons including Ganymede.

For the time being, NASA’s Juno mission is currently studying Ganymede and several recent photos have been released of the moon. (The pictures can be seen here.)

The study was published in the journal Nature Astronomy.

The post Hubble Confirms Water Vapor on Jupiter’s Moon Ganymede first appeared on Mysterious Universe.

Harvest Finance integrates with Polygon to cut down on high gas fees

Harvest yield farming aggregator and asset management platform is integrating Polygon blockchain to lower its gas fees.
Polygon’s network use is growing exponentially, with over 450 DApps, about 350 million transactions, and more than 13.5M unique users.

Polygon platform is venturing further into DeFi and yield farming through its latest collaboration with Harvest Finance. Harvest Finance, one of the earliest yield farming aggregators, will now be able to deploy farming strategies on the Polygon network. This development will benefit users, largely reducing the entry barriers.

Notably, decentralized finance (DeFi), is a fast-growing industry with numerous opportunities, products, and services. Leveraging on this, Harvest, which is also an asset management platform, gives users a maximum yield on assets deposited. Such include tokens, stablecoins and liquidity pool tokens. Those holding assets without making use of them can take advantage of this offer, rather than having their assets lie idle.

Launched on September 1st, 2020, Harvest upholds the slogan “Bread for the People.” The platform has now grown to become one of the largest and most vibrant yield aggregators in the world. Through its Operational Treasury, Harvest also funds programs like bounty programs, creativity contests, and prizes for developer contests.

Harvest seeks greener fields

Nevertheless, launching on the Ethereum network posed a few obstacles for the yield farming aggregator. The most significant is the high network fees users have to part with. For smaller farmers, these cuts could eat into their returns. Ensuring cost-efficiency makes it imperative for Harvest to take up different solutions aside from the Ethereum network. Polygon came up as one of the solutions to high gas fees.

With this integration, Harvest can now introduce new farming strategies, such as vaults, for users at a more affordable cost. Additionally, Polygon’s fast and user-friendly technology facilitates Ethereum scaling thereby introducing users to the world of Web 3.0.

Key notes

Moreover, Polygon’s well-designed platform facilitates infrastructure development on the Ethereum network. All Ethereum developers are Polygon developers. Of note, Polygon’s primary component is the Polygon SDK. It is a modular and flexible network that underpins the development and linking of Secured Chains. Such chains include Plasma, zkRollups, Optimistic Rollups, and Validium among others. Polygon SDK also supports Standalone Chains such as Polygon POS that has inbuilt independence and flexibility.

Owing to its lower network costs, Polygon has pulled in a myriad of projects both in and out of the DeFi industry. The scaling solutions provider now supports over 450 DApps and approximately 350 million secure transactions. The network’s user base has also grown to roughly more than 13.5 million unique users.

Harvest, on the other hand, is an asset management platform designed to maximize yields on assets deposited by users. The platform keeps placing efforts in cutting down gas costs, which benefits both users and developers. More so, Harvest is developing advanced strategies to become the one-stop-shop for DeFi yield farming. The cooperative aims at improving access to yield farming techniques to anyone, including those that are currently underbanked.

Der Beitrag Harvest Finance integrates with Polygon to cut down on high gas fees erschien zuerst auf Crypto News Flash.